Before we get too deep into the marvelous world that is biology one must understand some very important concepts. Today’s topic will be cells.
A cell is the most basic unit of any organism. There are two types of cells eukaryotic and prokaryotic. Today we will focus on eukaryotic; however, when we talk about bacteria we will then cover prokaryotes.
Now there is a lot more in the cell than I am covering and there is a lot more detail too but I just want you to get a small understanding of the cell until we jump head first into different biology topics.
All cells share certain attributes such as: possessing a plasma membrane; having cystol which is a semifluid in which one can find organelles and other components in; all cells have chromosome which contain our genes that are encoded by DNA; and last but not least ribosomes which translate mRNA into proteins. If you are lost please do not panic I will explain nearly everything that was covered in paragraphs to come.
A plasma membrane is a selective barrier that allows passage of certain things in and out of the cell such as: nutrients, waste, and oxygen.
The nucleus contains the DNA which is packaged into chromosomes.
DNA is the genetic information. It is where all genes are encoded for example in your DNA is a set of genes that encodes for your eye color.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has two regions: a rough and a smooth. The smooth does not have ribosomes bound to its membrane where as rough does. Proteins made by bound ribsomes move into the rough ER and then into the smooth ER which sounds them to the golgi apparatus via vesicles.
Vesicles- membrane bound sacs that are used for transport and storage of materials.
Golgi apparatus – receives vesicles and the material within it and then modifies it and sends them off again to their desired place.
Mitochondria- supplies the cell with energy.
Cell wall- plants and fungi posses this; it is a tough outer wall that protects the cell.
Cytoskeleton gives cell support and helps it to maintain its shape.
Again there is much more to the cell but this is just a simplified version for now as to not overwhelm you.
Questions? Comments? Snide remarks?